Ultrasonic calculate and determine a change in position, level

proximity sensors are mostly used in vehicles, to calculate and determine a
change in position, level measurement and detect the distance to nearby
objects. Ultrasonic proximity sensors, emits acoustic pulses and has a control
unit which calculates the propagation time of (see Figure 2) each reflecting
signal 3. This process ensures that the sensors are able to detect object
independent of its color rendering, the design and surface type 4. It is
possible to correctly detect even materials such as transparent objects, glass,
etc. One of the disadvantages of ultrasonic sensors is that; they do not have a
very good sensitivity towards dirt and can be easily affected by environmental
factors 5.




3.3  Applications of Ultrasonic Sensor

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Temperature Measurement

Resistance thermometers and thermocouples are the two conventional
methods of measuring temperature. This methods are used as a result of wave proagation
changes that significantly occur openly to all parameters with temperature.

Pressure Measurement

Other principles are used when measuring pressure in a process this is
as a result that, ultrasound can not directly measure pressure.

Level and Distance Measurement

Ultrasonic sensors emits acoustic pulses, radiation or beam
patterns, which are relative to the sensitivity of a transducer as a function
of spatial angle 6. Ultrasonic sensors always generate a different beam
pattern from that of its transducer. A technique used for realizing level and
distance measurement is the ultrasound reflection technique. Two different
types of distance and level instruments are used: binary and continuous
instruments. A scientific paper written by M.B. Gitis
and A.S. Khimunin, illustrates the working principle of the technique used in
realizing level and distance measurements with an example on collision
avoidance and monitoring of empty parking lots 7.

3.4  Selection

Before selecting an ultrasonic sensor to use, it
is necessary and important to check how the acoustical fundamentals will affect
the echo being produced; as there are many different ultrasonic sensor
available with different frequenciesfrequencies and with
different radiation angles 8. The right selection of ultrasonic sensor
parameters, will lead to better optimization of the system performance.


I found that real-time embedded system technology has become a
major target for safty in automotive systems. The use of the right and
efficient sensors and powerful processors will enable these diminutive systems provide
great benefits to vehicle operators. The ongoing systems in development, are
heading towards highway networks of driverless smart vehicles and automated
parking (AVs). Ultrasonic sensor systems are very good when parking in narrow
places but can easily be affected by environmental factors. They are more
expensive when compared with electromagnetic system sensors. Equipped with an
understanding of sensors operations, automotive designers can easily select
efficient and powerful sensors for advanced driver assistance systems while
delivering maximum performance. 


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