This section focusses on the review
of research that have already been conducted and are related on the topic under
study whose main objective is to reveal the contributions made by earlier
researchers and try identify the shortcomings and gaps in the existing
knowledge and highlight the lessons learnt from their studies. It is composed
of sections which include theoretical review, empirical review, conceptual
review, summary of the literature review and different related studies done by
previous researchers that will be used as a guide to this study.
The study is focusing on the challenges facing scaling
up of rooftop solar PV deployment in urban centres that is seen as the key
drive to making urban centres take part in climate change mitigation by
reducing greenhouse gases emissions. Urban centres still remain the main
consumers of electricity generated globally which is seen as the major source
of climate change through pollution in the process of generating electricity
for use. Many theories and models about the use and deployment of renewable
energy have been developed and used globally. Some of these theories have been
key in scaling up renewable energy mainly solar. Others have been negatively affecting
theories on sustainability and firms’ contributions to renewable energy
Many theories have been evolving on the role of firms
on sustainability and renewable energy use. These theories have assisted in the
scaling up of REs deployment globally. Among the evolving theories include
Corporate social responsibility, stakeholder theory, corporate sustainability,
green economics, multi-level perspective, co-evolution theory in management and
transition management. These theories have been applied at all levels of firm’s
management and organizations.
social responsibility theory
Firms have critical role to play in REs deployment
through their influences on decision making that affect the lives of citizens.
Large firms are understood to be critical; centres of powers hence their
actions largely affect the policy making in the field of sustainability and
political system that influence REs use in any nations (Howard Bowen, 1953).
Their actions determine the outcomes of country’s economic gains, society
welfare and environmental sustainability. Such firms can be used as agents of
REs use and deployment across the globe. Some have already taken initiatives of
promoting REs by using electricity generated from renewables or by installing
solar PV that is either ground or roof mounted within their premises.
Firms success depends on how they relate with their
stakeholders. Companies need to understand the needs and relationships with all
their stakeholders to help them manage their organizations well (Freeman, 1970).
These stakeholders include customers, suppliers, government, environmentalists
among others. Since firms are actors in social environment, there is need for
them to respond to demands and pressures across all their stakeholders that can
help to address the use of REs and thus agents of climate change mitigation
measures if they are to achieve their strategic objectives.
Corporate sustainability is defined as the ability of
a firm to meet the needs and demands of stakeholders without compromising the
ability to meet the needs of the future stakeholders (Dyllick & Hockerts,
2002). Firms are supposed to emphasize the need to meet stakeholders demand as
well as balancing the social, economic and environmental dimensions of their
performance (Brundtland, 1987). If this theory is adhered to by all firms, it
will promote the use of REs and play important role in environmental protection
and climate change mitigation as they aim to achieve future sustainability.
Green economics is defined “as the one that results in improved human well being and social
equity while at the same time significantly reducing environmental risks and
ecological scarcities” (UNEP, 2010). According to Richard Schmalensee
(2012), green growth needs more than firms’ voluntary policies to be successful
in all industries. There is need to balance between voluntary policies and
regulatory mechanisms for industries to embrace green economy.
role, Renewable Energy and climate change theory
Gender has played key role in renewable energy use and
address to climate change crisis. The effects of environmental deterioration
will affect both gender but women are likely to suffer a lot with regard to
their responsibilities (Wamukonya & Skutsch, 2001).
Culture traditional practices has for the past regarded women as agents of
child upbringing thus confining them to activities of taking care of the family
such as collecting firewood and fetching water for the family. In some places,
girls can’t access education due to duties assigned to them. This has led to
organizations coming up with foundations to promote the role of women in
sustainable development thus promoting the use of renewable energy as they aim
to achieve MDGs and SDGs. Some theories argue that climate change impacts will
affect everyone though they claim Africa as the most vulnerable and severely affected
due to high poverty levels and over reliance on biomass as the main source of
energy (Wamukonya & Rukato, 2001). This has led to African countries and
the entire world turn to renewable energy deployment mainly solar energy that
is readily available globally.
More emphasize is now
being directed on how to integrate solar PV in urban centres that remain to be
major consumers of electricity generated among all the nations. Multi-level
perspective theory has of late been used to explore the complexity of using
government policies to achieve renewable energy deployment goals. This theory
has led to rise of China as the giant when it comes to renewables mainly solar.
Germany has followed suit by using government policies that has increased wind
and solar capacity generation in the total energy generation capacity (Yuan et
al, 2012). Critical review of all these theories shows that renewable energy
use and deployment has been heavily related to these theories and if all
stakeholders are to follow them bit by bit, a lot can be achieved through
renewable energy despite many questioning renewable energy capability to
industrialize the developing countries.