oil demand is at its highest due to the increase in modern technology such as
cars, motorbikes and other easy access vehicles people use as everyday
transport. The Oil is produced through a few different means. One of these
methods is to drill into a seabed for the pockets for crude oil and other
substances with the help of a man made drilling rig causing even more damage to
ocean marine life than necessary. In 2016, Russia alone produced 10,551,497
(bbl/day) alone Wikipedia (2017) statistics show. Oils such as crude oil is produced
overtime by decaying fossils of marine life, which lay on the ocean floor. The
remains then are smothered in mud, this process repeats until they have
completely fossilised into rock due to the temperature pressure and lack of oxygen.
This however is not a quick process; in fact, scientists have dated it to be
140 million year process. What does that mean for future oil productions?
industry makes a lot of money from the production, according to the Wikipedia
page in (2009-10) the five largest oil companies combined produced £278,186,250
in just one day. (Sinopec, China National Petroleum Corporation, PetroChina,
Christopher L.J Frid & Bryony A. Caswell (2017) ‘crude oil is toxic if
ingested’ and ‘crude oil can also cause mortality through physical impacts such
as coating the gills or other respiratory
structures, interfering with the water-proofing and thermal protection
of birds and mammals’. Humans are causing harmful side effects for marine life,
as the demand gets higher but still have little knowledge of what’s truly happening
before the oil gets used for their vehicles. Not only is this not
environmentally friendly for marine life nor us. In France, Brittany 16th
march 1978 an oil spill occurred pumping 223 tonnes (x 10 (3) of crude oil into
the ocean along with the Ixtoc 1, in the Unities States, Gulf of Mexico 20th
April 2010-15th 2010 released 560-585 tonnes (x10 (3) Christopher
L.J Frid & Bryony A. Caswell (2017).
particular blow out happened ‘approximately five thousand feet below the
surface, causing the BT-Transocean drilling platform Deepwater Horizon to
explode, killing eleven workers and injuring others’, says Judith S. Weis (2015).
This explosion not only injured and caused mortalities to humans but animals
too. It was recorded there was ‘400 controlled burns, which killed hundreds of
sea turtles’ Judith S. Weirs (2015), not only sea turtles were affected but
this but larger mammals such as dolphins were killed or seriously injured. The
fish that surrounded that area took a serious hit to their numbers leaving
species in decline. Although there was actions taken to help prevent further
harm such as implementing Dispersant Corexit, to break up the oil. The damage had
already happened. This proves that oil digging in the ocean is not sustainable
as there is ‘Andrea Thompson, April 23rd, said Approximately 1.7
billion gallons (6.4 billion litres) of oil were lost as a result of tanker
incidents from 1970 to 2009, according to International Tanker Owners Pollution
Federation Limited. This high significant figure proves that oils spills are
not a matter how ‘if’ they will happen but ‘when’ will it happen and ‘where’.
The fact is that crude
oil, and other oils that are drilled from the ocean will not last forever as
they take millions of years to form and need the exact conditions for these
fossil fuels to arise. The rate in which oil companies are removing oils from
the seabed. As an estimate, we will run out of oils in the next 55 years or
sooner according to Andrew Leach (2014). Which shows that we have to stop being
as reliant on these methods because they will eventually run out, proving it is
not sustainable for the future. Sustainability means ‘The ability to be
maintained at a certain rate or level’ Oxford dictionary (1998). With this
definition in place, we can clearly see that we cannot manage the production,
its natural occurrence that cannot manufactured.
We are giving ourselves an
unsustainable future and hurting innocent marine life such as fish that keep mistaking
oils slicks for food that will harm. Ingesting oil can cause cancer, mutations
and mortalities according to the Australian Maritime Safety Authority (2016).
Oil slicks have also caused a drop in the fishing industry because there are
more ineligible fish that are not healthy enough to sell or eat due to the
amount of ocean pollution they uptake in their diet. This also leads to
damaging habitats and forcing marine life to relocate themselves to places they
would not naturally live. This can cause a decline in numbers because they cannot
easily adapt to their new surroundings, they also then are at risk of moving
into an area where there are higher amount of predators.