THE feigned her illness. Over the course of the

THE MEDIA PORTRAYAL OF DISSOCIATIVE IDENTITY DISORDERby Audrey O’ConnorEAE3UMr Noecker, Period 3January 18th 2018AbstractMy essay will be talking about the portrayal of dissociative identity disorder in the media. DID is seen as such violent and practically fake illness that many people around the world suffer from. DID in the media is shown as a very simple illness. It only seen as being an illness where a certain individual has multiple personalities. The disorder is more than just the personalities and needs to be recognized for all of its different aspects (significance in the world, symptoms) I will be exploring the portrayal of the illness in the media today and in the past as well as analyzing movies that contain concepts and characters with DID. Movies containing aspects of DID are done very wrongly. The movies only show the negative sides. Saying that, the negative aspects of the disease are not even totally a reality considering not all people with DID are violent.  I believe that the way to media shows DID is done very incorrectly and people need to be more aware of the important aspects of DID.Table of ContentsAbstract……………………………………………………………………………..…………1Introduction………………………………………………………………………………….…3Are DIDs real?…………………………………………………………………………………………………3The way the media sees it……………………………………………………..3The misconceptions……………………………………………………………4DID is the same as schizophrenia right?………………………………………..4″I would have known if you had DID!”………………………………………..5DID is only about having multiple personalities…………………..…5The reality of it……………………………………………………………….5History of DID in the media……………………………………………………….…..620th Century………………………………………………….………………6Psycho (1960)……………………………………………………………………………6Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde (1931)……………………………………………………..621st Century……………………………………………………………………7Me, Myself & Irene (2000)…………………………………………………………..7Split (2016)………………………………………………………………………………..7Reality of DID in the media…………………………………………………………..8Calling out the misconceptions……………………………………………….8The negative reality ………………………………………………………….9Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………….9Work CIted……………………………………………………………………………10IntroductionWhen the american mystery drama film The Three Faces of Eve (20th Century Fox Film Corp) came out in 1957, the face of dissociative identity disorder (DID) on the media changed forever. The story follows a young timid, Eve White who was only seen as a women who feigned her illness. Over the course of the film, Eve seems to overcome her disorder yet, DID is incurable (Edwards, Roxanne Dryden). People relied on the media to inform themselves of the disorder. Today, there are many misconceptions about DID. It is because of the many  movies and television shows that depicted the illness wrongly. So, does the media portray DIDs correctly? This paper will be exploring this thesis by looking through the controversy of DIDs in media, the historic aspects of DID as well as the reality of DIDs in the media.Are DIDs real?For nearly 50 years, dissociative identity disorder has been seen as a hoax of a disease rather than a severe neurological condition on the media as well as the rest of the world. Formerly known as multiple personality disorder (MPD), the mental illness is seen an embroilment1.1. The way the media sees itFor years, DID has been seen as a fabricated mental illness. DID is a very complicated and hard mental illness to understand considering its controversy in the media. It takes highly trained professionals to recognise DID, to diagnose and to also treat it. The media has created a false view on the illness and is now highly controversial when appearing in movies. “Because how can it be possible to have different identities living inside a single individual?” (betterhelp) This question is asked by so many people around the world. It is a question that ignores the reality and the severe symptoms of the neurological condition. Even after considering some of the life threatening symptoms such as depression, suicidal tendencies, anxiety, eating disorders, alcohol and drug abuse, hallucinations, etc, people still believe that it is all made up. There is a certain view on DID which involves people thinking that every person diagnosed with the illness has a certain maniacal personality.  In many different movies throughout the last century it has been this exact case. The main character of the film has her or his different personalities, and always has at least one delusional identity. Although it is possible for one diagnosed with DID to develop a maniacal personality, it is highly unlikely (Muller, Robert T.) One personality a person might develop will certainly be different from the rest. Also, in movies, one with DID might be seen as someone with limiting attributes. Their different identities might have very restrictive traits. For example, in The Three Faces of Eve (20th Century Fox Film Corp), Eve’s different personalities are extremely limited. Her alter ego- Eve Black is a wild heartless woman. She is only seen as being a very barbarous individual. She shows very little traits throughout the entire movie . One with DID in reality will have many aspects to their different identities. One will have as much emotional range as any other person. (Muller, Robert T.) In the end, the way the media sees DIDs are very unrealistic and portray the wrong symptoms, treatments and reactions of the neurological condition.1.2 The misconceptionsThere are many different msiconceptions in the media of DIDs. Like The Three Faces of Eve (20th Century Fox Film Corp) there are many different aspects of films on DIDs that are misconceptualized.1.2.1 DID is the same as Schizophrenia, right ?Schizophrenia is the exact same as DID, is what one would say without really knowing anything about either mental illness. Schizophrenia (SCZ) is mental illness that bring abnormal social behaviour that is completely different from dissociative identity disorder. (The National Institute of Mental Health) SCZ has certain symptoms such auditory hallucinations and so does DID does on a certain level. SCZ holds auditory hallucinations from outside of the person while auditory hallucinations in DID comes from within. (Matulewicz, Crystalie) 1.2.2 “I would have known if you had DID!”In movies today, when one has DID, every personality transition is extremely obvious. Filmmakers make this obvious by changing up the way of speech, clothing and habits of the person to make the change noticeable and doing it all instantly. In reality, this is not the case at all. Yes some switches can happen in a second, but it can also take up to a few hours or even days. (WebMD) Switches are also not always noticeable like in the movies and shows. “Someone with no real education about dissociative identity disorder might regularly interact with several personality states without ever knowing.” says Holly Gray, who was diagnosed with DID (Gray, Holly). 1.2.3 DID is only about having multiple personalitiesIn the media today, DID is seen as being only an illness that causes ones’ self to carry many different personalities. What the media completely disregards is the fact that DID is caused by childhood trauma and also leads to other major mental health issues. (WebMD) During the traumatic experiences someone with DID experiences as a child, their certain personalities helped coop with the hurt and let them completely remove themselves from the awful abuse (WebMD). After the DID fully develops itself, the other symptoms kick in, such as major depressive disorder, anxiety, certain eating disorders and personality disorders. (WebMD)1.3 The reality of itFor as long as hollywood has existed, many different illnesses have been wrongly portrayed. DID is certainly not defined by the media and what it is telling everybody. The media shows an illness that is only about the extremely unique attributes it has compared to other neurological and physical disorders (the different personalities). In reality, the illness is about so much more than just the obvious symptoms. As stated before, there are many severe symptoms that are hidden behind the misconceptions of DID. People diagnosed with DID are not all violent like certain characters are in movie such as Fight Club (FOX 2000 Pictures) and Identity (Colombia Pictures). These movies both have plots surrounding an individual with DID. They both have personalities within them that are violent. Again, not all people with the illness are violent yet it is still the norm in movies and television. The media sees the illness wrongly and does not point out the many different factors that make it unlike other neurological disorders. Most stories on the media portray the illness incorrectly which creates many different misconceptions.2. History of DID in the mediaThroughout the entirety of Hollywood’s existence, filmmakers have been wrongly portraying DID. The disease is a highly complex and complicated illness. Yes, it would be hard to avoid many different misconceptions, but there are also many that could be avoided and would help people truly understand the big idea of the illness. These following paragraphs will be exploring and truly understanding the movies from the past and from today and how they falsely portray the condition. 2.1 20th Century When DID was only recently exposed and talked about in the 1900s, film makers started creating movies about the illness. Since DID was only talked about when films first started being produced, writers began to create their own versions of the illness. Movies were extremely fictionalized even when they were based on a real story and disease. 2.1.2 Psycho (1960)The psychological horror film Psycho (Paramount Pictures) came out in 1960, Alfred Hitchcock’s film had a very big impact on the image of DID. Norman Bates was a very interesting man who was not  first known to be mentally-ill. As the film goes by, viewers begin realising that he is not well mentally. He has a few issues with his mother and how he communicates with other people. He ends up being a unofficially diagnosed with an identity disorder. He had two different personalities, which included one being a murderer (claims to be his mother- Mrs Bates and kills a few girls). The movie lead to a strong stigma around the disorder. It was thought to be an extremely dangerous and unexpected illness that one diagnosed with, could not control. Although, Norman Bates is in fact a fictional character, patients diagnosed with DID are mostly seen as “psycho”.  Hitchcock did not represent the illness as it is in reality.2.1.3 Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde (1931) The film adaption of the book of the same name released in 1866 became one of the most popular films about DID. Used in many references and clichés in today’s, media, Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde became a highly popular film on what is known to be multiple personality disorder. The movies basic premise is a young doctor who is known to have two different personalities including a very dangerous and cruel one (Mr Hyde). Mr Hyde does not have any boundaries and lets himself be free to murdering several people without a care in the world. Again, much alike Psycho, Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde depicts a very false image on the reality of DID. (Paramount Pictures) 2.2 21st CenturyIn the beginning of the twenty first century, films were and are very important to society. ”Film has a uniquely powerful ubiquity within human culture.” (Sha Mbe, Vikas) People judged certain problems in the world based on how they were portrayed in the films. Many movies, much alike the 20th century, portrayed DID wrongly and contained many different misconceptions. This section of the essay will be talking about more modern films containing elements of DID or entire plots on DID. 2.2.1 Me, Myself & Irene (2000)Jim  Carrey and Renée Zellweger starred in the 20th Century Fox Film Me, Myself & Irene. The plot is based around a man named Charlie with DID. During the course of the film, Charlie’s different personalities come out. One of his personalities is extremely violent and scary. In fact, the slogan on the initial movie cover says ” From gentle to mental.” This saying privily misconception DID in showing its a “mental” (psychotic). Therefore this movie stigmatizes DID in a very conspicuous way. (20th Century Fox)2.2.2 Split (2016)The very well known psychological horror-thriller film Split starring James McAvoy, was very controversial. Saying that, it contained many mistaken beliefs in that DID is only about having multiple different personalities and always having at least one violent one. The basic premise of the film is about a man living with 24 different personalities. He abducts three girls and torments them. Since patients with DID are proven to rarely be violent, Split portrays the opposite. (Nedelman, Michael) It stigmatized DID and again, showed how it always involves the person being in some way violent. (Universal Pictures) (Teach Trauma) 2.3 Has it evolved?All kinds of movies have evolved from century to century. Movies have always seemed to pick up misconceptions on different events around the world and have tried to kill the stigma. Ever since the first few movies involving a character with DID, there has been a big stigmatization around the illness. Many movies with the illness still portray many misconceptions and show how one with DID might be extremely violent or even futile. The recent movie Split (Universal Pictures) shows the amount of stigmatization individuals face when it comes to their illness. It shows that movies surrounding the main subject of DID have not evolved very much. The disfiguration of the neurological illness has not changed very much.3. Reality of DID in the media The real world of DID is much bigger than displayed on the media. The illness is much more than how it seen on the big screen. It is a disorder that is in need of a big change in order to change its stigmatization. Movies in the past have shown only the negative sides of DID. Showing only the negatives on a certain subject will create misconceptions and certain stereotypes. They are stereotypes that make people with DID more susceptible to prejudice. (TeachTrauma)3.1 Calling out the misconceptionsDissociative identity disorder and schizophrenia are not the same illness. They are completely different and the media today reinforces a wrong statement. As explained before, schizophrenia is an illness implicating delusions as one’s symptoms. But people with schizophrenia do not have multiple personalities. (WebMD) It is a common mistake in the media. Other misconceptions still caught in the media might be that it is a very violent and dangerous disease.3.2 The negative realityDID in the media is currently seen as a vicious and uncontrollable illness that affects many people around the world. (WebMD) The portrayal of DID in the media, ike much other illnesses is only for entertainment. Although everything in the media is solely for the enjoyment of the viewers. The only problem is, is that the media is still stigmatizing the neurological condition in making it seem like a horrible situation.ConclusionLike the 2016 movie Split, DID is wrongly portrayed in the media. The media shows and represents only what is entertaining to viewers rather than trying to avoid the stigmatization. This essay explored the many different misconceptions and the ways the media portrays them such as confusing DID with schizophrenia, people with DID are violent, how DID is only about having multiple personalities. It also delved into the many different movies and their common misconceptions as well as all of its evolution. The reality and stigma of DID depends on modern media today and needs to start being seen for what it really is.Work Cited”Dissociative Identity Disorder (Multiple Personality Disorder).” WebMD, WebMD, 2016, www.webmd.com/mental-health/dissociative-identity-disorder-multiple-personality-disorder#1. This website will help the essay further explore all aspects of dissociative identity disorder and help understand the different causes, symptoms and treatments that there are available.Edwards, Roxanne Dryden. “Dissociative Identity Disorder.” MedicineNet.com, www.medicinenet.com/dissociative_identity_disorder/article.htm. This website will help explore dissociative identity disorder even further and recognizing how the illness only mellows out with treatment but is truthfully incurable.Identity. (2003). DVD Directed by J. Mangold. USA: Colombia Pictures.This film allowed the essay to further understand the misconceptions in the media of certain factors of DID. Since the movie majorly stigmatizes DID, it allowed me to use it as an example when explaining the reality of DID.Fincher, David. Fight Club. USA: FOX 2000 Pictures, 1999. DVD. Much like the film Identity, FIght club has allowed the essay to further understand the many different misconceptions of DID and how they should be changed.Lomke, Evander. “Psychiatry Films from AMHF: “The Three Faces of Eve” (1957).” American Mental Health Foundation, AMHF, 19 Apr. 2013, americanmentalhealthfoundation.org/2013/04/psychiatry-films-from-amhf-the-three-faces-of-eve-1957/. This site has let the essay understand the plot and the many misconceptions in the film The Three Faces of Eve. It has also let the essay understand that the film is truly and very strongly stigmatized.Matulewicz, Crystalie. “Hearing Voices in DID.” HealthyPlace, 22 June 2016, www.healthyplace.com/blogs/dissociativeliving/2016/06/hearing-voices-in-dissociative-identity-disorder/. This article has helped the essay truly understand the difference between SCZ and DID as they are mixed up very often in the media. It is used when explaining and debunking the misconception.Mbe, Vikas Shah. “The Role of Film in Society.” Thought Economics, 19 June 2011, thoughteconomics.com/the-role-of-film-in-society/. This website helped me understand the sole role of film in today’s society. I used it in the paragraph named “21st Century” to understand film’s significance. It was important to know that film has so much more meaning than what it used toMuller, Robert T. “The Media and Dissociative Identity Disorder.” Psychology Today, 19 Jan. 2013, www.psychologytoday.com/blog/talking-about-trauma/201301/the-media-and-dissociative-identity-disorder. This text has allowed this paper to fully examine the media and how DID is portrayed on it. It contains many good examples that are used on how DID is misconceptionalised”Myths and Media Portrayals of Dissociative Identity Disorder.” TeachTrauma, TeachTrauma.com, www.teachtrauma.com/controversial-topics-trauma/myths-media-portrayals-dissociative-identity-disorder/. This website will allow me to explore DID in a more deepens way as it explains a lot of the different portrayals and misconceptions of DID. It will also allow me to see the negative sides on was the film Split has done to the image of DID.”Schizophrenia.” National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/schizophrenia/index.shtml. This website has allowed this essay to deepen the understanding of the contrast between DID and SCZ. They are both two totally different illnesses that are commonly mistaken for one another. I used this site to explain how the two disorders are different.20th Century Fox Film Corp. ; producer, Nunnally Johnson ; writer Nunnally Johnson ; directed by Nunnally Johnson. The Three Faces of Eve. United States :20th Century Fox Home Entertainment, 2004. Print. This film has been used in many different parts of the essay to understand how every since the first movie based on DID was highly stigmatized and contained many different misconceptions. Also the different characters were used as many examples for how people with DID usually act on the media

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