Leptospirosis survive in months depends on the suitable environment

Leptospirosis is primarily a disease of domestic or wild
animals but it can be passed to humans or sometimes causes severe kidney or
liver disease. Leptospira interrogans is
the causative agent. Leptospira has a
characteristic shape for example an exceedingly fine spiral, only about 0.1
micro meter in diameter, wound so tightly that is barely discernible under a
dark-field microscope. Like other spirochetes, Leptospira interrogans stains poorly and is difficult to see under
a normal light microscope. 

In extended times animals are
infected by the spirochete which shed the bacteria in their urine. By contact
with the urine-contaminated water or soil or animal tissue human will be
infected. The person who are most at risk are the people whose occupations are
expose to animals or animal products. Through minor cut at skin or mucous membranes
the pathogen usually can enter. When ingested, it enters through the mucosa of
the upper digestive system. Dogs and rats are the most common sources in the
United State. Even when the domestic dogs has been immunized they may continue
to shed leptospira with controlled rate.  

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               Kidneys of
the host is where the pathogenic leptospires usually lives. The genital tracts
of domestic animals act as sites of persistence. Mammalian species mostly are the
carriers. The dead end hosts are human. Leptospires can survive in months
depends on the suitable environment by which they are excreted through urine
into the environment. Direct contact with the carrier’s urine or indirectly
through a urine contaminated environment cause infection to the accidental
hosts. Leptospires can be excreted in the products of abortion in domestic
animal species. Unlike natural hosts, accidental hosts often develop disease.

               Lepstospira serovars have been
identified nearly 300  and many more will
follow. Mammalian hosts such as rodents, insectivores, dogs, pigs and cattle
are where the serovar can easily adapt . Serovars can be adapted to several
hosts while one hosts might carry several distinct serovars. Because of the
cycle is complex and dynamic, the serovars continue to adapt to new hosts. To alter
the distribution of the serovars in a species vacinations pressures must be
applied. Distribution and infection patterns may change both by adaptation of
serovars to other hosts and by the introduction of new host animals into an
area. The distribution of Leptospira serovars
wil be affected by the climatic and ecological changes.

               Due to
the wide variety of symptoms seen in infected persons the leptospirosis is lack
of awareness and the subclinical nature of the disease in animals and
technically demanding laboratory tests making the disease difficult to diagnose
in the clinic and the laboratory. By depending on a number of known or unknown
factors, among which the causal serovar and the host’s immune status might be
important the illness varies from mild to severe which potentially fatal. In
the worldwide, case fatality rates range from 3 to more then 50%. Clinical declaration
may comprise fever, severe headache, chills, diarrhoea, nausea and vomiting,
haemorrhages, joint pain, skin rash, cough, cardiac arrhythmia, psychosis or
delirium. Early disease presents with non-specific symptoms of fever, myalgia
and headache having lacking of any diagnostic hallmarks suggestive of
leptospirosis. Because of its protein manifestations, leptospirosis almost look
alike other infectious diseases for example influenza, hepatitis, dengue,
hantavirus infections or other viral haemorrhagic fevers, yellow fever,
malaria, brucellosis, typhoid fever or other enteric diseases and pneumonia. Usually
easy symptom that can be detected are after an incubation period 1-2 week,
headaches, muscular aches, chills and fever abruptly appear. The acute symptoms
disappear and the temperature returns to normal after several days. Unfortunately
a second episode of fever may occur after a few days later. In a small number
of cases the kidneys and liver becomes seriously infected (Weil’s disease) by
which kidney failure is the most common cause of death. With only the
particular serovar involved, the recovery results in a solid immunity can be


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