English is the language that has
spread throughout the world most extensively and is dominating in a number of
important fields including international commerce, education, and
communication. The demand of English use in society is very huge. People tend
to use English to communicate among countries. In Education field, schools in
Indonesia consider English subject as a compulsory subject to be taught. Since
English belongs to foreign language in Indonesia, people are not exposed with
to use English in daily life. Students are required to learn English from
elementary school until higher education In doing so, there must be a good
method used by teacher to help student to learn English better. Among some
methods, project-based learning is considered as the best method used in
English language learning.
Project-based learning is a
learning model that focuses on students where the learning activities of
students as subjects more independent in completing the work of authentic as a
result of learning ( Hodgin, 2010). It is globally recognized by notifying some
studies dealing with this appoach. However, this learning model is not yet
popular in Lampung. Project based learning focuses on the learners or students,
while teachers are the facilit ators in the classroom. Students are demanded to conduct
learning activities which are student-centered learning that integrate with
authentic materials. Project based learning require students to have ability to
solve problem and develop products. It also organizes learning toward projects
of complex tasks, involving students in designs, problem-solving, decision
making, investigating activities, giving students chance to work autonomously
in a given period of time, and presenting the projects. Project based learning
fosters students’ ability for contextualizing the learning process through
presenting them with problem to solve and product to create. Thus, students’
motivation and enthusiasm, language use, information sharing and resource
management skill are increasing progressively. According to Lee (2002),
students enhance motivation, engagement and enjoyment because project work
progresses according to the specific context and students’ interest. Authentic
projects are more meaningful for students, increase interests, increase
motivation, and promote independent learning. In addition, students will engage with some
projects that may give them experiences which might be useful for them in the
Currently, the demand of English use is no longer on the need of english for general. People with different working background will have different needs of English. English for Specific purposes is introduced provide people need of English. ESP (English for specific purposes), commonly known as English courses for students of non-English majors. Hutchinson and Waters (1994) says that ESP is an approach to teaching English in which things are taught and their teaching methods are based on the reasons why the learner wants to learn English.
ESP is an approach to teaching
English language material which refers to the needs of students and the
graduates themselves. This is supported by Mc Donough statement about the
concept of ESP. He argued “ESP Reviews those are courses where the
syllabus and materials are determined in all essentials by prior analysis of
the communication needs of the learners.” Some experts ESP provides the
characteristics and the main traits ESP in learning English as diverse and
varied. There are four major characteristics ESP as an approach to learning
English, namely a) ESP is designed to meet the needs of learners, b) the
substance and content of ESP is associated themes and topics in the given field
of science, type of work or activity, c) is centered on the form of the
language that is appropriate to the activities and field of study or work such
as syntactic, lexical, discourse, semantics, and so forth, and d) ESP is
different from General English.
Robinson goes on to say that
there are three main features that distinguish ESP with General English or
English a Foreign Language (EFL) or English as a Mother Tongue (EMT). The
characteristics is 1) ESP is a goal-oriented learning (goal oriented). In this
context, learners learn English not because it wants to know the language as a
language and culture contained in it, but learners learn ESP because it has a
special purpose, particular and specific in bdang academic and professional
with each other. 2) The substance of ESP was designed and developed based on
the concept of needs analysis (need analysis). The concept of needs analysis
aims to specialize and associate and juxtapose what dibutuhakan learners in
both the academic and professional field. 3) ESP is aimed more at adult
learners of the child or adolescent. This is logical because the ESP generally
taught in middle and high levels of academic and professional or workplace.
In foreign Language learning
context, there are various factors that influence the learning process such as
motivation, attitudes, anxiety, learning achievements, aptitudes, intelligence,
age, personalities, etc. (Gardner, 1960; Lehmann, 2006, cited in Shams, 2008).
The matter of learner’s attitude is acknowledged as one of the most important
factors that impact on learning language (Fakeye, 2010). This study looks into
the concept of attitude as one of the major affective factors for success in
learning a foreign language. More specifically, it investigates students’ attitudes
towards implementing project-based learning in English for business class,
taking into consideration the three aspects of attitude i.e., cognitive,
affective and behavior.
Cognitive attitude involves the
beliefs of the language learners about the knowledge that they receive and
their understanding in the process of language learning. The cognitive attitude
can be classified into four steps ofconnecting the previous knowledge and the
new one, creating new knowledge, checking new knowledge, and applying the new
knowledge in many situations. Feng and Chen (2009) stated that, “Learning
process is an emotional process. It is affected by different emotional factors.
The teacher and his students engage in various emotional activities in it and
varied fruits of emotions are yield.” Attitude can help the learners to express
whether they like or dislike the objects or surrounding situations. It is
agreed that the inner feelings and emotions of FL learners influence their
perspectives and their attitudes towards the target language (Choy &
Troudi, 2006). The behavioral aspect of attitude deals with the way one behaves
and reacts in particular situations. In fact, the successful language learning
enhances the learners to identify themselves with the native speakers of that
language and acquire or adopt various aspects of behaviors which characterize
the members of the target language community.
This research was conducted in
one of private university in Lampung in which the curriculum provides English
for business for non English study program. It is to help students learn
English based on their needs since they will use English in business context.
In doing so, the researcher tried to identify students’ attitude in
implementing project-based learning in English for business class.
design of this study is qualitative study in which the data were analayzed by
using descriptive analysis. There 40 respondents majoring informatics system
chosen randomly. To gain the data about the students’ attitude, the researcher
collected data from questionnaire, observation and interview. The respondents
were required to fill all items in questionnaire and expressing their own
perceptions toward learning English for business through project. The
questionnaire were developed by constructing the theory of attitude, which are
cognitive attitude, emotional attitude and behavioral attitude. Among 16 items,
four items are negative statements. The students were asked to rate degree of
agreement for each item or statement in questionnaire. The criteria consist of
five degree of Likert Scales ranging from 5-1, started from strongly agree
until strongly disagree.
The evaluation criteria of the questionnaire are as
positive attitude towards the project-based learning approach is very low.
positive attitude towards the project-based learning approach is low.
positive attitude towards the project-based learning approach is moderate.
positive attitude towards the project-based learning approach is high.
positive attitude towards the project-based learning approach is very high
who took English for Business II will cope the material of business
presentation and analyzing SWOT of a company. Within this material, students
are assigned with their project to find out complete information about big
company profile and analyzing the SWOT of a company and present it in the
classroom. Below is the steps in implementing project based learning.
Selecting the topics
Planning the project
collecting and discussing information
sorting the information
Designing the project
Evaluating the project
presenting the project
1. Steps in implementing Project-Based Learning
to the research question, the result of descriptive analysis shows that the
students’ attitude toward implementing project based learning among
participants is 3,89. This result reveals that students show positive attitude
toward project that they have worked. In addition, the mean scores of the three
aspects of attitude reveal different result. The mean score of cognitive
attitude is 4.2406. The mean score of emotional attitude is 3.58333. The mean
score of behavioral attitude is 3.84.
a. Cognitive Attitude
I like to
see people speaking in English
presentation improves my English ability
project helps me to learn English through some sources
I get more
English vocabulary through my project
of English business helps me communicate in English effectively
Table 1. Questionnaire
Measuring Cognitive Aspect of Attitude
the data shown in table 1, it can be seen there are 5 items related to
cognitive attitude. The average mean of cognitive attitude is 4.2406. It
represents the highest mean score of attitude toward project. It implies that
students have positive attitude toward projects they have designed. The item
“presentation of English business helps me communicate in English effectively”
obtained the highest score (Mean, 4.4). The lowest mean score is on the item
“English presentation improve mmy English ability”. However, the score still
reveal that students agree that presentation has improved their English
ability. To sum up, English project which requires them to have English
presentation has improved students’ English ability, helped students to learn
English better, improved students’ vocabulary and helped them communicate
effectively. Enganging students with projects has shaped them to be creative
and innovative in designing a good presentation. Catching up with some
authentic sources, students are automatically exposed with native language. It
requires them to have a good comprehension toward authentic sources to support
their project. According to Levine (2004), students’ language skills can be
improved. The students engage in purposeful communication to complete the
project with real world relevance and utility; they thus have the opportunity
to use language in a relatively natural context and participate in meaningful activities
which require authentic language use. Moreover, students will develop their
positive communication skills by advocating and defending ideas, but listening
the opponents’ ideas and open opinions. Project-based learning helps to solve
the gap between knowledge and thinking (Yalcin et al, 2009).
b. Emotional Attitude
English is fun
English well through my project
speak English fluently
motivated to learn English through presentation
satisfied with my performance during presentation English
like studying English
Table 2. Questionnaire
Measuring Emotional Aspect of Attitude
shown in table 2 consist of items about emotional attitude. The data reveal
that students have positive emotional attitude toward their project. The
highest mean score lies from the questionnaire number five in which the
students learn English well through their projects. It is then continued by
item which state that students can speak English fluently after being giving
such project. Among six items, one item is negative statement stated in item
number 16. The mean score is negative. However, the item indicates that
students like studying English. Over all, students agree that learning English
is fun. They agree that project the were assigned to accomplish has motivate
them to learn English and lead them to prepare the project before they present
it in front of the class. In doing so, students were satisfied with their
performance. Lee (2002) agreed that students have enhanced motivation, engagement and enjoyment because project they worked
depends on the specific context and students’
interests. From a motivational perspective, projects being authentic
tasks are more meaningful to students, increase interest, motivation to
participate, and can promote learning. PBL is said to motivate students as they are
wholly engaged in the learning task.
Enjoyment and motivation
also derive from the fact that classroom language is not predetermined,
but depends on the nature of the project. In addition, increasing students’
learning motivation will boost students’ ability to do important works, and
they deserve to be appreciated (Bas & Beyhan, 2010; Ergul & Kargin,
c. Behavioral Attitude
my project takes time
Embarrassed to speak English in front of the class
for making english presentation is challenging to me
English can help me to get a better job in the future
English only when I have English class.
Table 3. Questionnaire
Measuring Behavioral Aspect of Attitude
presented in table 3 showed items about behavioral attitude. Positive items are
listed in number 10 and 13. Having been seen from the mean score from these two
items, students have positive behavioral attitude toward their project.
Students agreed that preparing English presentation challenged them and they
agree that English can help them to get a better job in the future. Erden
(2012) stated that project made by students increases enthusiasm for learning.
They are challenged to accomplish their project and involed in their project.
Enthusiastic students tend to retain wthat they learn. So, it reduces students’
anxiety. However, items no 3, 4 and 14 showed negative attitude of the
students. They agree that accomplishing project takes time. Some students were
lack of self confidence speaking in front of the class. Some others learn
English only if they have English class. Some studies reveals that students may
have negative attitude toward their project. Grant (2002) revealed that
implementing project-based lerning in the clasroom requires a lot of time. It
is used to solve complex problem happend in the class. However, teacher should manage time to finish their materials.
Kurzel & Rath (2007) stated that project may decrease students’ interest. The
inexperienced students will get difficulty in completing their projects.
Therefore, students tend to be passive during presentation (Grant, 2002; Kurzel
& Rath, 2007).
implementation of project-based learning in English for business class worked
well. Students follow the steps in accomplishing their project. The topic is
about company profile. Firstly, students selected their sub topics. They may
choose the company by themselves. Th next step is teacher explained the points
that they need to cope with related to presentattion oc company profile and
analyzing SWOT of the company chosen. Then, students were given a week to
collect data from any sources and then sorted them to get the important data.
After getting the data, students then designed their presentation written in
ppt slide. In following week, students consulted their work to the lecturer.
Lecturer then gave feedback to the students project. After getting the
feedback, students then presented their company profile and SWOT analysis in
font of the class. In this activity, students leant how to explain and defend
their ideas. At the end, students and lecturer evaluated the project together.
Thus, the process was totally focused on students-centered learning.
this article, the researcher has exposed the students attitude from those three
aspects of attitude, namely cognitive attitude, emotional attitude and
behavioral attitude. Majority of students have positive attitude toward
implementing project-based learning in the classroom. This method has led them
to an independent learners. They also agree that project they worked on has
motivated them to learn English better. Being interested in the project,
students were challenged. Enjoyment promoted English language learning.
However, implementing project-based learning took time. Thus, it is suggested
that teachers/lecturers need to have good time management when they use project
to assign the students so that basic competence of each material can be
achieved and students can maximalize their ability in doing their project.