India, methods as well as approaches for conversion of

India, an agrarian country produces a
large amount of different types of biomass wastes every year. These wastes are
not utilized fully. These are categorized as

·        
Agricultural
residues, from harvesting and processing,

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·        
Energy
crops, produced for energy applications.

·        
Food and
Industrial waste

·        
Forest
Residues

·        
Other
processed and post –consumed food wastes.

Rural India has been using the
traditional form of biofuel for cooking purpose, other kind of liquid biofuels
have also been in use due to technological advancement. The major conversion
technologies include thermal and biochemical.

But, production of biofuels from
agricultural wastes is still in its nascent stage and is emerging field of
research. These conversion technologies and the different processes such as
thermochemical, fermentation, gasification, liquefaction, distillation,
combustion and process of fast pyrolysis can be used to produce bio-fuels from
agriculture wastes such as corn stover, wheat straw, rice husk and straw.

This project is mainly aimed to study
the rice husk as a prime raw material for conversion into bio-fuel as in India,
most of the wastes are consumed as:-

·        
Consumption
as animal fodder, firewood for household purposes,

·        
Consumption
of rice husk by usage in rice mills,

·        
Burning,
rotting are other consumption patterns, which pollutes the environment. The
recent case, Delhi Smog due to the burning of rice and whet straw and husk in
the nearby states of Punjab and Haryana.

 

The study aimed to find out probable
technologies and methods as well as approaches for conversion of rice husk into
bio-fuel and provide an alternative to burning and rotting. For example, NTPC
agreed to buy these wastes to convert into biofuel for energy and electricity
generation.

Some initiatives have also been taken
by TIFAC – Center for Biofuel Pilot Plant, to convert these lignocellulose
biomass to ethanol. The steps followed are-

·        
Assessing
their composition,

·        
Carrying
out pretreatment,

·        
Hydrolysis
and

·        
Fermentation
steps.

The second phase of experimentation is
in the development stage to achieve and obtain a stable method for scale
processes.

One other study examines the processes
and scalability of conversion of rice husk into biofuels by externally heated
fixed-bed co-pyrolysis reactor. The rice husk characterized through proximate
and ultimate analysis, gross-calorific values and thermos-gravimetric analysis
by mixing the rice husk with tires to obtain liquid biofuels at different
stages. But the process of conversion is done by forming mixture and at certain
temperature requirements which again is challenging to obtain. This needs
attention regarding technology development, blending formulas and availability
of landscape as well as materials.

The other finding which was found is
the development of briquettes from rice husk, will increase the efficiency in
the domestic sector, and replace conventional fuels which is polluting in
nature and effect the health of women and society. This study which has been
conducted in a foreign country can be remodeled in the country by employing
proper techniques and following right approach. The rice husk, the waste has
great energetic potential, not yet used, provides an opportunity to encourage
development and generate value added services. 
The technology used are Compaction and Drying. The biofuel produced
would reduce deforestation, as well as ensure sustainability but the conversion
can only be achieved when economic, environmental and social aspects and issues
are solved that needs efficient supply chain, from the supply of rice husk to
the commercialization of briquettes.

Some other findings also show that the
developments are in process as well as at research stage to convert and
transform rice husk into high performance composites.

Link – https://eds.a.ebscohost.com/eds/detail/detail?vid=0&sid=fdb67e5a-ebe4-4e94-b2aa-76c2eea218c7%40sessionmgr4010&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmU%3d#AN=edselc.2-52.0-85001070017&db=edselc4

The other study researched on the
conversion of rice husk into fermentable sugar by two stage Hydrolysis process.

Link – https://eds.a.ebscohost.com/eds/detail/detail?vid=0&sid=01215407-42f0-47ab-bda4-b7a2c35888a1%40sessionmgr4009&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmU%3d#AN=edselc.2-52.0-85034218140&db=edselc

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