In any case, the personal information
of participants is not disclosed. Before answering the interview questions,
interviewees are given the explanation of the study’s purpose, privacy
assurance, and the right to turn down the interview invitation.
The list of participants was fine-tuned
following the compulsory quota sample and inclusion criteria. Qualified peoples
were given the warning paragraph, once the participants voluntarily accepted to
participate the interview, the researcher sent them the set of questions, gave
them time to answer and alter their answers. The final version of data was
collected within 2 weeks.
The research objects (washing powder,
perfume) were selected for two reasons. The assumption was that these
categories of consumer products stand for various degrees of consumer
involvement in brand choice (loyalty). Washing powder has low involvement,
while perfume has a high level of consumer involvement. This can be explained
that washing power contributes lower risk to consumers regarding money spent
and using experience. Whereas perfume has high-perceived social risks directly
linked with personal appearance. Hence, perfume demands a high level of consumer
involvement in buying decision-making process due to the intense product
differentiation; consequently reflects a high degree of brand loyalty.