1. to domestic violence in Viet Nam.2. Discussion of

1. IntroductionIn Vietnam an alarming number of women are victims of domestic violence although initiatives are taking place to tackle the ugly epidemic. Domestic violence is behavior used by one person in a relationship to control the other. As the US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton stated ” beating women is not cultural, it’s criminal and it needs to be addressed and treated as such”. One in three, or 34 percent, of ever-married women report that they have suffered physical or sexual violence from their husbands at some time in their life, according to the National Study on Domestic Violence Against Women in Vietnam, launched today by the Government of Vietnam and the United Nations.It is obvious that women are prone to suffer from domestic violence than men and home does not seem to be a safe place for many women. Domestic violence happens in three different ways, they are physical, sexual and emotional. This serious problem happens regularly both in the countryside and the city. These sad criminal acts will continue to grow in our society, unless our community takes action to stop these crimes. Thus, the paper, based on secondary data, discusses causes and effects of domestic violence and propose some possible solutions to put an end to domestic violence in Viet Nam.2. Discussion of findings2.1. The current situation of domestic violenceViet Nam has undergone thousands of years of feudal regimes, and has thus been heavily influenced by sex disparity and gender bias. Therefore, although the movement to emancipate women has recorded successes, violence against women still exists. Vietnam’s Health Ministry announced that domestic violence cases have steadily risen over the past five years during a conference . According to the report, about 5 percent of women who had been pregnant reported being beaten during pregnancy. In almost of these cases, the women had been abused by the father of the unborn child. ” We have quite a big gap between the law and its implementation ” Van Anh says – director of the Center for Research and Applied Sciences in Gender, Family, Women, and Adolescents ( CSAGA ). According to a national study, half of women in Vietnam who have been abused have never told anyone about it, and 87 percentage have never gone to the authorities. If they have told anyone, it is usually another family member. As recently as November 2015, Thanh Nien News reported that a staggering 58 percent of married women have been victims of domestic violence at some point in their lives.2.2. Possible causes of domestic violenceThere are so many causes of domestic violence, but generally, it comes from both subjective and objective factors. First of all, some subjective causes lead strongly to violence.Abused women remain silent to earn respect from family members or community. In addition, the Vietnamese saying ” He is bad, you feel embarrassed”( Xau chang, ho ai) expresses the shame that so often keeps silent. It is also normal for women to feel at fault. Van Anh said that many people think that if a women became a victim, she had made some mistake, for example, she was too talkative or had not done enough housework. Therefore, women are still in silence as they think it is a exceptional way to continue happiness in their family and being women, they need to be tolerant. They accidentally locked themselves in the dark with no way out. Another causes come from external factors which are the most important reasons. Traditionally, newly wedded wives move in with their husband’s family. Some men ” never had to grow up ” which leaves them with a lack of maturity and a perpetual dependence on their parents, resulting in relationship difficulties. Women, too ashamed to leave, learn to accept the behaviour of their husbands and partners regardless of the dangers. Cultural perceptions of gender roles often perpetuate abuse. Men have been taught that money and power are masculine, but in Vietnam, many women are the breadwinners for their families. As this can make men feel inferior, many resort to violence as a way to retain power. In the same way, women are taught that being a good wife means being gentle, quiet and ”enduring”. This keeps them silent. Combined with a cultural emphasis on reconciliation rather than justice, many women find themselves in bad situation they can escape. Van Anh said that they always wanted to keep the marriage together at any cost. They think that if the family breaks down, it means the children are vulnerable, but they don’t think about women’s rights and human rights.     2.3. Effects of domestic violenceThe results of these studies show that domestic violence against women damages the physical and mental health of the women concerned and seriously effects the health and development of children in families with domestic violence. The most serious effects are the physical and mental health of the women. Compared to women who have never been abused, those who have experienced partner violence are almost two times more likely to report poor health and physical problems, and three times more likely to have ever thought of suicide. Many women become particularly angry and depressed; they abuse their own children and drink alcohol to alleviate the physical and emotional pains. Some studies show that victims of domestic violence are more likely to maltreat their children than those who are not abused by their partners ( cited on UN 2010 ). That is completely a tragedy. Although domestic violence takes a heavy toll on women, children are also victims. These children do not have chance to enjoy their childhood. They have no choice growing faster than others. While other kids are loved and taken care of by parents. Moreover, their studying at school will also be affected. They also feel bored, anxious, and worried about their family, so they have lots of concentrated difficulties in class. They can not understand the lessons and be blamed for being lazy and even some children drop out of school ( Rebecca 2011 ). Another effect is that children become more aggressive and show violent actions because they can not expose their feeling at home. If they have chances to express, they are possibly hit, spanked and punched. Last but not least, domestic violence has bad influences on kids as they grow up. It is clear that parents are the first models in a child’s life. If children are exposed to verbal abuse such as throwing, damaging furniture, slapping, kicking and insulting words everyday. What will happen? Certainly, there will be effects in the future life. In adult life, men witnessing domestic violence in childhood are more likely to abuse their wives than those who did not witness as children. Likewise, women who were exposed to violence in family when being small seem to be more tolerant towards violence from their counterparts.2.4. Solutions of domestic violence reducingUsing violence in families is by no means humane and tolerable so it is necessary to find the solutions as soon as possible. However, in the face of this problem, both Vietnamese government and citizens must join hands to relieve the consequences of domestic violence in daily life. In term of the government, the very first thing they need to do is to educate their people. They should emphasize that domestic violence is not anyone else’s problem; it is social so that people realize the seriousness of this matter. They also ought to explain clearly what domestic violence is, how it influences people’s lives and family tie. In addition, schools and healthcare centers need participate in this champagne. They can organize a meeting to talk about violence; hence, people’s awareness are raised at “an early stage of their psychological development”( Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation). In the long term, the government need to put more efforts into eradicating poverty. It is important to teach people some kinds of jobs and lend citizens money with a low rate of interest so that they can earn their living. Moreover, it is necessary that each individual has a notion of reducing violence in their families. First, people should remain good relationship with intimate partners. Family’s atmosphere must be comfortable, happy and peaceful so that house will be the most wanted place for everyone. When there is something wrong in family, the husband or the wife must know how to behave in order to calm down the other. Silence when in need is encouraged. Another solution is that women should understand more about domestic violence to protect themselves while it occurs. If women are abused, they should not keep silence. Authorities need to know this so that they can intervene and find the answers. Parents have to be aware that domestic violence has negative effects on their children and it is essential to respect the intimate partners.         

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