1) scale, national representatives came together to form treaties.

1)
Congress of Vienna- The Congress of Vienna was a meeting of ambassadors of
European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich. It was
held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815. The main objective of the
Congress of Vienna was to provide a long-term peace plan for Europe by settling
critical issues that arose from the French Revolutionary War and the Napoleonic
Wars. France lost all its recent conquests while Prussia, Austria, and Russia
gained territory. This is significant because the Congress of Vienna was the
first occasion in history, where on a continental scale, national
representatives came together to form treaties. This formed the framework for
European international politics until the outbreak of World War I in 1914.
2) Otto von Bismarck- Otto von Bismarck was a conservative Prussian statesman
that dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890. He was
the first Chancellor of the German Empire between 1871 and 1890. German
unification and its rapid economic growth was the foundation of his foreign
policy. Bismarck created the first welfare state in the modern world, with the
goal of gaining working class support that might otherwise go to his socialist
enemies. Otto von Bismarck is significant because Germany became a modern,
unified country under his leadership.
3) Frankfurt Congress of 1848 – The Frankfurt Congress of 1848 was the first
freely elected parliament for all of Germany. They were elected on May 1, 1848.
The members represented the entire political spectrum and included the foremost
German figures at the time. The president of the parliament was Heinrich von
Gagern. The main goal of the Frankfurt Congress was to unify Germany. The
congress produced the Frankfurt Constitution which proclaimed a German Empire
based on the principles of democracy. It also proposed a constitutional
monarchy headed by a hereditary emperor. The Frankfurt Congress is significant
because it was an attempt to unify Germany and that had not been attempted
before.
4) Meiji- The Meiji era is a Japanese era that extended from October 23, 1868
to July 30, 1912. This period represents the first half of the Empire of Japan
during which Japanese society moved from being an isolated feudal society to
its modern form. Many of these reforms were greatly influenced by the West, but
they never drifted too far away from Japan’s cultural roots. This time period
is significant because it abolished the old system of a social hierarchy based
on inherited status. This is significant because it helped to form the current
Japanese culture.  
5) Serbia- Serbia is a landlocked country situated at the crossroads of Central
and Southeast Europe in the southern Pannonian Plain and the Central Balkans.
In the early 19th century, the Serbian Revolution established the
nation-state as the region’s first constitutional monarchy, which expanded its
territory. It is believed that World War I started when Austria-Hungary
declared war on Serbia in 1914. After World War I, Serbia became Yugoslavia. It
did not become its own independent country again until 2006. Serbia is
significant because it was the regions first constitutional monarchy and the
start of World War I.
6) Treaty of Versailles- The Treaty of Versailles ended the war between Germany
and the Allied Forces. It was signed on June 28, 1919 in Versailles. The most
important and controversial portion of the Treaty of Versailles required
Germany to accept the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all
the loss and damage during the war. The treaty forced Germany to disarm, make
substantial territorial concessions, and pay reparations to certain countries
that had formed the Entente powers. This is significant because it ended the
state of war between Germany and the Allied powers.
7) Enabling Acts- The Enabling Act was a 1933 Weimar Constitution amendment
that gave the German Cabinet (Adolf Hitler) the power to enact laws without the
involvement of the Reichstag. The Act stated that it was to last four years
unless renewed by the Reichstag, which is was twice. The Enabling Act gave
Hitler plenary powers. When combined with the Reichstag Fire Decree, The
Enabling Act transformed Hitler’s government into a legal dictatorship. This is
significant because it gave Adolf Hitler the power that he needed to become the
dictator of Germany.
8) Bandung Conference- The Bandung Conference was a meeting of Asian and
African states, most of which were newly independent, that took place on April
18-24, 1955 in Bandung, Indonesia. The 29 countries that participated
represented nearly ¼ of the Earth’s land surface and a total population of 1.5
billion people. The conference’s stated aims were to promote Afro-Asian
economic and cultural cooperation and to oppose colonialism or neocolonialism. This
is significant because it laid the foundations for the nonaligned movement
during the Cold War.
9) Embedded Liberalism- Embedded liberalism is the global economic system as
well as the associated international political orientation that existed from
the end of World War II to the 1970s. There were two objectives. The first
objective was to bring back free trade. The second objective was to allow governments
the freedom to provide generous welfare programs and to intervene in their
economies. The system began to break down during the 1970s. This is significant
because in the 1950s and 1960s, the global economy prospered under embedded
liberalism, with growth more rapid than ever before or sense.
10) Afghanistan- Afghanistan is a country in the Middle East that is adjacent
to other countries that are rich in oil and natural gas. It does not contain
much petroleum itself, but it borders both the second and third largest natural
gas reserves in the world. It has been the source of many wars and many people
have risen to form major empires. In 1919, the country was free of foreign
influence and became a monarchy for many years. After the Soviet-Afghan War, it
became an Islamic state until the Taliban overtook the majority of the country
and ran it as a totalitarian regime for close to 5 years. Currently Afghanistan
is a unitary presidential Islamic republic with Islam as an official state
religion. Afghanistan is significant because it is situated in between two of
the largest producers of petroleum in the world.

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